Data availability can be achieved through…
…hardware redundancy e.g. RAID, multiple power supplies which connect to different power feeds which are protected by different UPSs. Network redundancy should be configured too e.g. multiple network cards (possibly teamed) to different switches (think you need 802.3ad / 802.1ax support).
…server redundancy e.g. using DFS, application replication e.g. Microsoft SQL server database mirroring or failover clustering.
…site redundancy e.g. redundant connectivity links or maybe DFS namespace configuration with replication.
Data availability through shared resources using DFS namespaces and DFS replication; more here
Another way to share and collaborate would be using SharePoint; SharePoint 2010 foundation is available as part of Windows Server 2008 R2 licence.
Offline data access
Data availability through offline files; more here
Installation methods range from manual installation through to using something like (SCCM) System Center Configuration Manager. Manual installations are impractical in large environments but may be suitable for installation of software in a small or branch office with no servers or domain. Scripted deployments can be used for zero or lite touch installations but requires good scripting skills and can be potentially time consuming to maintain.
Other automated deployment methods are (GPSI) Group Policy Software Installation and SCCM; group policy can be used to assign msi packages to AD DS user and computer accounts or publish msi packages to AD DS user accounts. GPSI doesn’t have any deployment scheduling or bandwidth throttling functionality.
SCCM can be used to deploy zero touch installations, upgrade Windows Server 2003 to Windows Server 2008, schedule application deployment using Wake On Lan (WOL) if required. SCCM can also deploy traditional executables.
Plan App-V deployment
App-V creates an separate partition space for each application; this allows conflicting and non-RD compatible applications to be deployed on the same RD session host.
App-V is part of the Microsoft Desktop Optimisation Pack. App-V applications can be deployed as msi installers thus making them compatible with GPSI.
App-V only streams the active part of the application to maximise the responsiveness.
Plan virtual application deployment
Remote App allows for applications to be accessed remotely but with the look and feel of a local installation. Remote App applications can be deployed to users and configured to trigger when a user opens a particular file e.g. Word would open when a user opened a .doc file; this functionality does require the Remote App to be deployed via a msi installer.
The Remote App applications are deployed on a RD session host so users will require ‘allow logon through RDS’ or be a member of the Remote Desktop Users group. Remote App applications can also be presented to the user as rdp shortcuts or via the RD Web Access website.
Plan web application deployment
Web Application deployment methods are WebDAV using HTTP or HTTPS and FTP (FTP in IIS 7.5 can utilise SSL).
WebDAV is a per site configuration and can be installed as a role in Windows Server 2008 R2.
FTP is a role service of the Web Server role; FTP can be configured on a per site basis or per server.
Microsoft Web Deploy 3.0 can be used to package visual studio applications for deployment as well as keep web farm in sync.
More Web Infrastructure information here